Falcons are considered the fastest flying birds, because they can fly at a speed of more than 300 km / h. This hunter has excellent eyesight, as it is able to see its prey from a height of up to 1 kilometer inclusive. The shape of the Falcon's wings in flight resembles a sickle, which is the basis for its name in Latin.
The Falcon has strong and broad wings, as well as a muscular body. The chest is broad and the limbs are powerful. The structure of the beak is very interesting, because it is short, in the form of a hook, in the upper part of which there is a sharp tooth. This feature makes it easy to break the spines of small birds. There is an inexperienced border around the eyes. The wings are powerful and massive, and the tail is long, with a rounded tip. Adults differ from juveniles in the structure of their flight feathers. Young individuals have short flight feathers, so in flight, they use them all at once. In adult specimens, only the second feathers are flight feathers, but they are quite long.
This bird has the following characteristics: The size of the body in length is about 0.6 meters. The wingspan is within 1.2 meters. The length of the tail is about 20 centimeters. The size of the paws is about 5 centimeters on average. The length of the chord of the wing, about 40 inches high. Males weigh an average of 0.8 kg, and females about 1.3 kilograms. Interesting moment! Males are smaller than females, both in size and weight. Feathered birds are characterized by a rather variegated body color, with the predominance of such shades as brown and gray. On the plumage is a triangular pattern, made in darker shades, although there may be white inclusions. On the flight feathers, you can see black spots, and on the head a black "cap". The feathers are tightly pressed to the body and have a rigid structure. This allows the Falcon to develop a significant speed. Among this diversity of the family, there are almost white species, as well as almost black.
Falcons prefer to hunt in the morning and evening hours, choosing small birds as prey. As a rule, they do not eat carrion. To provide themselves with food, these predators have several methods of hunting. They either catch their victims directly in flight, or dive from a height, finding potential prey on the ground. The rest of the time (during the day), the falcons are in their shelters and digest their food. They build their nests on the tops of the tallest trees or on rocks. They can occupy the nests of other birds, but they do so very rarely, because many birds nest in unsuitable conditions for falcons. These predators never build their nests on the ground.
Interesting moment! You can see how the falcons in the sky demonstrate their capabilities, as if playing. At the same time, they can tease other birds of prey, as if demonstrating their advantage.
These predators can climb to heights that are inaccessible to other birds. After forming a couple, they protect their living space from encroachments from outside. The Falcon bird, like many other representatives of this genus, prefers a nomadic lifestyle. Their migrations are related not only to finding places more comfortable for wintering, but also in order to find food. Unlike other birds of prey, falcons are easily tamed by humans. This predator is not afraid of humans and often settles next to humans. The hunting tactics of these predators are very interesting. They attack their potential prey from above, then beat it with their powerful and sharp, hook-like beak. As a rule, one such blow is enough to kill any small bird. Often they deliberately lift their prey into the air to take it in flight, while even fast swallows do not have time to react to the attack of the Falcon.
This is not surprising, since its speed at the time of attack can reach more than 100 km / h. Sometimes you can see how the Falcon plays with its victim, as if missing after the attack. After all, the victim has no chance of escape. It is important to know! Falcons are considered the most intelligent predators of all birds of prey. The bird is not afraid of humans and is easy to train. The training process consists of various elements, including both classes and games. In any case, it should be remembered that this is a formidable predator. Despite the fact that these birds get used to their owner, they should always be treated carefully and carefully.
It is believed that the average life span of these birds is within 15 and a half years, although individuals live up to a quarter of a century. Naturally, while in the natural environment, birds live less than if they are kept in captivity.
The family falconidae consists of 11 genera, with:
There are 5 genera of caracaras, including black, red-throated, mountain, screeching and Karachi. Falcons consist of 6 genera, such as laughing, woodland, American dwarf, small, dwarf, and falcons. The most numerous and main is considered to be the genus of falcons. It consists of 40 subspecies, and they are divided into several groups
Representatives of the Falcon family can be found without problems on almost all continents, except the expanses of the North and South poles. Only young birds fly away for the winter, and older individuals remain to winter in the former territories, but at the same time move as close as possible to reservoirs. Some species prefer to settle in steppes and semi-deserts. For Gyrfalcons, it is characteristic that they prefer coastal zones of Northern latitudes. For the territory of Europe, the characteristic habitats of these predators are mountains and steep cliffs. Peregrine falcons are characterized by their nomadic lifestyle, so they can be found on any continent.